Developmental studies; vascular smooth muscle and vasomotor innervation; role of photodynamic therapy in cardiovascular disease; differences in endothelial responses to cardiovascular risk factors in males and females.

In my laboratory, we have been studying blood vessels from a variety of aspects. Most recently, we have been examining the differences between male and female endothelial responses to cardiovascular risk factors. This is a topic which has gained importance as the myriad of differences in the responses between males and females become clarified. We have examined the role of diabetes mellitus and high salt consumption in the atherogenic process and found significant differences between males and females and also differences depending on the type of vessel examined.

A second major interest is in the potential of photodynamic therapy as a treatment of atherosclerosis. Primary atherosclerosis, and restenosis following surgical plague removal, continue to be major medical problems. Using a light sensitive drug, we have evidence that this type of therapeutic intervention has the prospect of ablating plaque in studies that have followed the treatment for up to 6 months.

Dr. Todd retired in 2002.


Cheung, J., Todd, M., Turnbull, R, Allison, B., Mornin, L. Carvalho, A-M, Spurr, G., Hsiang, Y. (2004) Longer term assessment of photodynamic therapy for intimal hyperplasia: a pilot study. J. Photochemistry & Photobiology B. Biology 73: 141-147.

Hsiang, Y.N., Bower, R.D., Todd, M.E. (1995). Determining light dose for photodynamic therapy of atherosclerotic lesions in the Yucatan miniswine. J. Endovasc. Surg. 2:365-371.

Hsiang, Y.N., Crespo, M.T., Todd, M.E. (1995). Dosage and timing of Photofrin for photodynamic therapy of intimal hyperplasia. Cardiovasc. Surg. 3:484-494.

Todd, M.E., Song, M.Y., and McNeill, J.H. (1993). Coexistence of diabetes and hypertension results in unique structural alterations in the renal artery in rats beyond that found with diabetes alone. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 19:115-126.

strong>Todd, M.E. (1992). Hypertensive structural changes in blood vessles: Do endothelial cells hold the key? Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 70:536-551.


White blood cell adhering to the lining of the blood vessel from a model of human diabetes mellitus.