I have established conditions in cell culture in which normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells can express mammary-specific functions or proliferate comparable to in vivo counterparts. I am currently utilizing these culture conditions or similar conditions for the following research areas.

  • Studies involving the growth and differentiation of normal, benign and malignant human breast epithelial cells in primary culture in response to growth and differentiation factors including hormones, growth factors and epithelial-stromal interactions.
  • Detection and characterization of normal and malignant human breast epithelial stem cells.

Experiments are done with the cooperation of local surgeons to obtain tissue in excess of that required for medical evaluation. Data on malignancies are correlated to the clinical course of the disease with the cooperation of clinicians at the BC Cancer Agency.


Raouf, A., Zhao, Y., To, K., Stingl, J., Delaney, A., Barbara, M., Iscove, N., Jones, S., McKinney, S., Emerman, J., Aparicio, S., Marra, M., Eaves, C. (2008). Transcriptome analysis of the normal human mammary cell commitment and differentiation process. Cell Stem Cell. In Press.

Eirew, P., Stingl, J., Raouf, A., Emerman, J.T. and Eaves, C.J. (2008). A method for quantifying normal human mammary epithelial stem cells with in vivo regenerative ability. Nature Med. In Press.

Kerr, L.R., Andrews, H.N., Strange, K.S., Emerman, J.T. and Weinberg, J. (2006). Temporal Factors Alter Effects of Social Housing Conditions and Chemotherapy on Hormone Levels in the Shionogi Mammary Tumor Model. Psychosom. Med. 68:966-975.

Anderson, KM, Jaruga, P., Ramsey, C.R., Gilman, N.K., Green, V.M., Rostad, S.W., Emerman, J.T., Dizdaroglu, M., and Malins, D.C. (2006). Structural alterations in breast stromal and epithelial DNA: The influence of 8,5′-cyclo-2′-deoxyadenosine. Cell Cycle 5:1240-1244.

Troussaard, A.A., McDonald, P.C., Wederell, E.D., Mawji, N.M., Filipenko, N.R., Gelmon, K.A., Kucab, J.E., Dunn, S.E., Emerman, J.T., Bally, M.B., Dedhar, S. (2006). Preferential Dependence of Breast Cancer Cells Versus Normal Cells on Integrin-Linked Kinase for Protein Kinase B/Akt Activation and Cell Survival. Cancer Res. 66:393-403.

Kucab. J.E., Chen, C-S., Zhu, J. Gilks, Cheang, M., Huntsman, D., Yorida, E., Emerman, J., Pollak, M., Dunn, S.E. (2005). Celecoxib Analogues Disrupt Akt Signaling which is Commonly Activated in Primary Breast Tumors. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 94:47-52.

Rahn, J.J., Chow, J.W., Horne, G.J., Mah, B.K., Emerman, J.T., Hoffman, P. and Hugh, J.C. (2005). MUC1 Mediates Transendothelial Migration in vitro by Ligating Endothelial Cell ICAM-1. Clin Exp Metastasis. 22:475-83.

Stingl, J., Raouf, A., Emerman, J.T., and Eaves, C.J. (2005). Epithelial Progenitors in the Normal Human Mammary Gland. J. Mammary Gland Biol. & Neoplasia. 10:49-60.

Stingl, J., Emerman, J.T., and Eaves, C. (2004). Enzymatic Dissociation and Culture of Normal Human Mammary Tissue to Detect Progenitor Acivity. Methods in Molecular Biology: Basic Cell Culture Protocols (3rd Edition). Helgason, C.D. and Miller, C.L., eds. The Humana Press Inc., Totowa, New Jersey.

Strange, K.S., Wilkinson, D., Edin, G. and Emerman, J.T. (2004). Mitogenic Properties of Insulin-like Growth Factors on Human Breast Stromal Cells in Primary Culture. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84:77-84.

Strange, K., Wilkinson, D. and Emerman, J.T. (2002). Mitogenic Properties of Insulin-like Growth Factors I and II, Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 and Epidermal Growth Factor on Human Breast Epithelial Cells in Primary Culture. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 75:203-212.

Parmar, H., Young, P., Emerman, J.T., Nave, R.M., Dairkee, S. and Cunha, G. (2002). A Novel Method for Growing Human Breast Epithelium in vivo Using Mouse and Human Mammary Fibroblasts. Endocrinology 143:4886-4896.

Stingl, J., Zandieh, I. and Emerman, J.T. (2001). Characterization of Bipotent Mammary Epithelial Progenitor Cells in Normal Adult Human Breast Epithelial Tissue. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 67:93-109.

Stingl, J., Eaves, C.J. and Emerman, J.T. (2000). Characterization of Normal Human Breast Epithelial Cell Subpopulations Isolated by Flourescence-Activated Cell Sorting and their Clonogenic Growth In Vitro. In: Methods in Mammary Gland Biology & Breast Cancer Research, pp. 177-193. Ip, M.M. & Asch, B.B., eds. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.

Stingl, J., Eaves, C.J., Kuusk, U. and Emerman, J.T. (1998). Phenotypic and Functional Characterization In Vitro of a Multipotent Epithelial Cell Present in the Normal Adult Human Breast. Differentiation. 63:201-213.

Bardy, P., Connelly, E., Emerman, J.T., Lansdorp, P.M., Humphries, R.K. and Eaves, C.J. (1997). Isolation and Analysis of Different Subpopulations of Normal Human Breast Epithelial Cells Early After Their Infection with a Retroviral Vector Encoding a Cell Surface marker. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 44:153-165.


Breast epithelial cell in tissue culture.